E = M * (D/T)²

It Is Time for a New Model of the Universe.


What gets us into trouble is not what we don't know.

It's what we know for sure that just ain't so.
Mark Twain

Western culture is heavily influenced by early Greek philosophy. It is not surprising that when the Platonic ideal of uniform circular motion for the heavens and planetary harmony was presented, its elegant simplicity was accepted as fact. Astronomers spent the next 2000 years trying to fit their theories of planetary and solar motion into the perfect ring of uniform circular motion. Not until science examined the assumptions of previous astronomers, and tweaked the theory from perfect circles to allow ellipses and a helio-centric solar system, did the predictions agree with observations. For us to assume that Time is constant throughout the universe is like someone in San Francisco, or New York, proclaiming that water always boils at 212° Fahrenheit or 100° Centigrade, without ever having boiled water in Denver or observing temperatures of the "black smoker" vents at the bottom of the ocean. This new hypothesis is not meant to tear down either of two very great theories of physics, (Quantum Mechanics, or Relativity). It is presented to possibly explain the apparent conflict between them due to the here-to-fore unrecognized effect of the variability of time (Chrono-Force). To proclaim there are only four fundamental forces in the universe (EMF, Gravity, Strong Nuclear Force, and Weak Nuclear Force) is as arrogant as the early Greeks’ in proclaiming there are only four elements (Water, Earth, Air, and Fire) in the universe. We must remain open to all new concepts, and test them rigorously for accuracy. The Chrono-Force hypothesis looks at Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, and tweaks it to include the variability of time as a force, rather than the traditional concept of time as a constant dimension. There will be as much resistance to the “Chrono-Force” concept as there was to retiring the “Flat Earth” theory, and the “Geo-Centric Universe” theory. In the end, the elegance and simplicity of the Chrono-Force will win out. We will look at its simplicity and symmetry, and wonder, “how could anyone ever have thought otherwise.”

When he was in school, in the 15th Century, everything Copernicus was taught about the motion of planets and stars was wrong. When Isaac Newton was in school, in the 17th Century, everything they taught him about gravity and mass acceleration was wrong. When you were in school, in the 20th Century, everything you were taught about time and the speed of light was wrong.

Once upon a time a lowly Swiss patent clerk, who was suspected to be a slow learner in school, rose to become a Nobel Prize winner, and a celebrated Princeton University physics professor. He declared that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Just over 500 years ago Christopher Columbus was told if he sailed too far west, he would fall off the edge of the earth. Over 2000 years ago, Aristotle declared that heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects. They were misinformed. Down through history most of science has been reluctant to declare that “the emperor has no clothes” or to dispute a generally accepted theory from such a great authority, - until someone comes up with an experiment or a definitive observation to refute or disprove that theory.

There is no doubt that Professor Einstein recognized the intimate relationship between mass and time. Einstein, however, believed the nature of time to be a scalar quantity or dimension; directly measurable like height, width, and depth. He referred to time along with three dimensional space, calling them “Space-Time”. Einstein predicted that the motion of a massive object creates a distortion in the curvature of Space-Time. He referred to this distortion phenomenon as “time dilation”. His misunderstanding of the nature of time required the introduction of a number of theoretical phenomena such as reverse time travel, and causality loops. He was, like many early astronomers, trying to fit a circular peg into an elliptical hole.

 The Magnetic Force and the Electric force combine to create the symmetric Electro-Magnetic Force. Time is, in reality, a member of another symmetric “Force-Duo”, combining with the force of Gravity (originating from objects with mass). Time is not a dimension, but a vector force (containing direction, and magnitude), measurable only by observing its effect on the physical objects around us. We experience the Gravitational force exerted by mass as an acceleration force we refer to as weight when we are at rest. We experience the Chrono-Force exerted by mass as time. The predicted distortion of Einstein’s Space-Time continuum is the interaction of the “Chrono-Force” combined with Gravitational force. Chrono-Force is variable and changes with conditions such as proximity to other objects with mass. Just as we cannot directly measure Gravitational Force (but only its effect on objects with mass), and EMF (by its effects on conductors, semi-conductors and magnetic fields), we cannot directly measure Chrono-Force (only its effect on moving objects in motion like flywheels, tuning rods, and oscillators). We are as oblivious to the variability of Chrono-Force today, as were the scientists of the 14th Century to the variability of the Force of Gravity.

Prior to Isaac Newton defining the laws of motion (and the relationship between mass and gravitational attraction), man dealt with gravity, knew it exists, and considered it a dimension, (or universal constant). It doesn’t take too much imagination to consider how much ridicule Newton must have endured from his contemporaries when they found out he is “out playing with gravity again. Everyone knows about gravity. What is this new concept of mass, and how does it relate to gravity? Surely he is wasting his time with something everyone is so familiar with”. We are also familiar with the trouble Christopher Columbus had convincing the leaders of Europe that the world is not flat.

Today we orbit a spherical globe in minutes. Today we have precise weights and measures, which standardize our measurements of mass in the earth’s gravitational field. Today we also know gravity is a variable force (depending on mass). A mass that weighs ten pounds on Earth will weigh substantially less on the Moon, or substantially more on Jupiter. Weight depends on the gravitational field (mass) of the frame reference. Our standards of time measurement, like the atomic clock, operate with great precision here on earth, (in our “Chrono-Force” field of reference). We haven’t begun to explore how it acts outside of our astronomical backyard. Science has already observed that extremely precise clocks run faster at the upper floors of a high-rise building than those at the ground floor. It is, also, no accident that we have to adjust the precision clocks in GPS satellites to run slightly slower on the Earth’s surface, in order to compensate for the increased distance they operate from the center of the Earth’s mass when they are in orbit. Conventional science is still wrestling with the fact that atomic decay rates differ as our orbital distance from the Sun’s center of gravity changes seasonally due to Earth’s elliptical orbit, as reported by Ephraim Fischbach and Jeri Jenkins of Purdue University. This is the same reason we adjust the GPS clocks to compensate for the distance from the Earth’s center. We haven’t fully defined the properties of Chrono-Force, or how it affects other objects. Our current understanding of time is like man’s knowledge of gravity, prior to Isaac Newton joining the concept of mass attraction/acceleration with gravitational force. We know time exists, but until now have had no idea from where it originates or how it behaves in other frames of reference.

We recognize that distances are measured from one point (point “A”) to another point (point “B”). Basically, distances are all measured from point ”A” relative to point “B”. This is true whether the distance is medium (from you to the door), or small (from one character on the page to the next), or the extremely small (from an electron to the nucleus of an atom). This also holds true if the distance is very large (from one galaxy to another). Speed is the amount of time it takes to travel the distance from point “A” to point “B”. Since distances are relative values, speed is also relative (whether it is speed relative to the surface of the earth in your car, or speed of the Milky Way Galaxy to the Andromeda Galaxy).

Let’s consider Professor Einstein’s most famous equation, E=MC². Energy is equal to Mass multiplied by the Speed of Light squared. This equation doesn’t allow anything to move faster than the speed of light, because as an object with mass approaches the speed of light, it requires an infinite amount of energy to accelerate it further. This “universal speed limit” is only true if you consider time to be a constant. Since speed is a combination of distance traveled divided by time (a variable), the “universal speed limit” should now be recognized as a variable. Essentially Einstein was measuring the speed of light with an elastic yardstick. Let’s consider the example in figure 1 (below). Since all speeds are measured in relative terms, let’s examine the speeds of the galaxies shown. If observers in galaxy “Z” look at galaxy “X” they will observe a relative speed of 0.75 times the speed of light. This is perfectly fine with Einstein’s E=MC² equation. They will also observe that galaxy “Y” is behaving itself. However, observers in galaxies “X” and “Y” have a relative (closing) speed of 1.5 times the speed of light. In Einstein’s court, this is a violation of the law.

Objects moving at “faster than light speeds” would not be detectable by optical or electronic means (just as detecting a supersonic jet is not acoustically possible until its sonic “shockwave” has passed you). In this example, observers in galaxy “X” and galaxy “Y” would be unable to detect each other visually or electronically, but that fact doesn’t prevent their (relative) closing speed from exceeding the speed of light. One doesn’t have to look back very far to remember that prior to Chuck Yeager breaking the “sound barrier”, the limit of speed was thought to be the speed of sound. The limitations of our detection techniques don’t exclude the possibility of exceeding light speed any more than the speed of sound is a limit of jet airplanes. One must ask oneself if it is reasonable, or logical, to impose an absolute limit on a quantity that is measured in relative values.

We can observe the “bending of light waves” in water or a glass medium. This occurs because; when the wave front enters a medium of different density at an angle, the speed of the wave front is slowed disproportionately (one part of the wave is slowed before the other). This phenomenon is called refraction. When Professor Einstein tried to consolidate the EMF and Gravitational Force in his search for the “Theory of Everything,” the gravitational bending of light and the concept of the “Fabric of Space-Time” was invoked. In 1919 Arthur Eddington observed that light from distant stars passing by the sun during a solar eclipse appeared to have been slightly bent, so that the stars appeared “out of position”. This stellar displacement was held as proof of “gravitational lensing.” The lensing effect of a gravitational bulge in the atmosphere (similar to the gravitational bulge of the high tides) during a total eclipse has not been accounted for. Everyone saw the expected results and quit looking for any alternate explanations, declaring the “Theory of Relativity” confirmed, (and the Emperor is indeed grandly attired).

If, however, an object has a concentration of mass, a Gravitational field and a “Chrono-Force” field will be observed. Large stars have been observed to radiate concentrations of magnetic fields, gravitation fields, X-rays, and Gamma particles. Any light wave transiting those fields will be altered with the “lensing effect”. As the wave front passes through the varying flux-density in the “Chrono-Force” field, it will be slowed disproportionately (in much the same way that light is refracted by a magnifying glass). We will find that, just as the Gravitational Force has been explored and defined; we too must re-explore, and redefine how Gravity and the “Chrono-Force” change the effects on light and any other matter moving in their vicinity, to bring some order to our understanding of our universe.

We know that even the measurable speed of light is not fixed: (it slows down in anything other than a vacuum). The apparent velocity of light through air is slower than the speed of light in a vacuum. The apparent velocity of light through glass is slower still. This is caused by light (the EMF), and “Chrono-Force” interacting with the mass of the medium through which it is traveling. As the mass (gravitation) of the medium increases, the velocity (distance/time) decreases. Scientists are still debating whether light (the EMF) is pure energy/force, or is particulate (has mass) in nature. Either way, in order to exceed the “apparent speed of light” you only have to remember that time is a variable, or force, not a dimension.

One outgrowth of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is called the “Twin Paradox”. This is the predicted idea that if one twin was to go blasting out in space at near the speed of light, his/her time would be slowed down compared to the twin remaining on Earth. When the first twin returns, and the two siblings are reunited, they would have experienced drastically different ages due to time-dilation. Can there be an example of a more parochial, Geo-Centered theory anywhere? This concept totally ignores the fact that distance and speed are measured in relative values. Most (if not all) physicists acknowledge that everything is in relative motion (planets, stars, galaxies), so there is no real “point of origin” or “absolute zero reference”. Distances are measured from one point relative to another. Speed is also measured in relative terms from one object to the other. This means that the two twins (when reunited) have each “traveled” half the relative distance and “returned” half the relative distance. Since each twin travels the same relative distance over the same amount of time there can be no time dilation effect. When the twins are reunited their relative net distance traveled is zero which would cancel out any possible dilation effect. The “Twin Paradox” is based on the premise that one twin is at a fixed location (Earth) and the other twin is moving. Relativity cannot be valid if you keep everything truly relative (including distances and speeds). Absolute speed is a human perception, not a physical phenomenon.

As it stands today, the theory of Quantum Mechanics proclaims that one can’t predict the order of the universe at the subatomic scale. According to Quantum Mechanics, the best we can do is predict the chance, or probability, of a particular outcome. The Quantum Theory further concludes that since one particular outcome cannot be assured, all possible outcomes must exist. This extension leads to the concept of multiple dimensions of reality. These extrapolations come from a failure to consider that some parameters previously thought constant, may in fact be variables. This is like trying to consistently bake a cake without using the same amounts of ingredients, or temperature, or baking time, for each attempt. If one has no knowledge of the effects of Chrono-Force present at the atomic or sub-atomic scale, one can never be assured of a consistent outcome, only a probability. Quantum Physicists would have us believe that photons of light are released when electrons “instantaneously” move from one valence orbit to another around the nucleus of an atom. When we realize how much empty space there is inside an atom, and how close the electrons are to the source of the Chrono-Force and the Gravitation force inside the atom’s nucleus, the idea of “instantaneous” travel will be explained on a more rational level than “just trust us”.

We are familiar with the principal of entropy. This is the concept that, without the input of external force, all processes disintegrate into randomness. At an atomic level this process has been called the Nuclear Weak Force. It is, however, a result of the Chrono-Force interacting with the mass of an object, causing decay of the atom, and thereby releasing energy. Those atoms with a heavier mass (plutonium, uranium, and many others) have a tendency to be more unstable than the lighter atoms. Those atoms with a heavier atomic structure have a shorter half-life. The greater the mass, the more rapid the process of Chrono-Force generated entropy. There are other factors affecting the stability of the atom, but until now the effect of the Chrono-Force has been unrecognized.

Astronomers found in the first half of the 20th Century that the universe is expanding (thanks to the work of Edwin Hubble). Recent measurements have not only confirmed those measurements, but indicate that the expansion appears to be accelerating! This observation has alarming implications for the Speed of Light limitation. Cosmologists and astronomers are trying to explain what kind of energy, or force could be the source of this acceleration. They refer to “Dark Energy”, “Vacuum Energy”, “False Vacuum”, and a “Cosmological Constant” to explain this observed acceleration. The explanation will be simple when we recognize that time (Chrono-Force) is not the same in all frames of reference.

We may, someday, learn the secrets of channeling Gravitational fields to perform levitation, as we have learned to channel E.M.F. (copper wires for electricity, wave-guides for radio waves, and fiber-optics with light). We may also, someday, be able to control the flow of “Chrono-Force” with some type of artificial “Time-Conduit” or chamber, allowing us to vary (slow down, or speed up) the effects of Chrono-Force. It is interesting to speculate about the military applications of a device, such as today’s particle cannons, or laser weapons, which could project a beam of “Chrono-Force” at an enemy. It could accelerate aging and/or decomposition, or slow response times for disarming terrorists, or it could produce some other time related phenomenon. A ground based beam of "Chrono-Force" directed at an incoming ballistic missile could cause a timing device to either detonate prematurely or delay detonation till the vehicle has self-destructed by crashing. The on-board guidance system could be totally confused by distorting the time/distance calculations. A vehicle, either ground based or airborne, when cloaked by the “Chrono-Force”, could appear to materialize from or disappear into thin air.

The future medical applications may hold the possibility to place items, or people, in a “Time Chamber” to be used as a stasis device for battlefield evacuation, ambulance transportation, or long duration space flights. Shelf life of medicines or donated blood may be extended to improve the availability of medical or pharmaceutical products. The possibility to transport donated organs in a “Time slowed” chamber across a continent or an ocean to where they can be used to extend life will open up a world of opportunities. Performing surgery on a patient between heartbeats may become common place. Someday a patient may be able to wake up from surgery to find that the incision has been healed by a “Chrono-Force field” accelerated process induced by a small field generator during the recovery from anesthesia making even the post-surgery recovery process virtually pain free. The implications for sports medicine could include recovering from a painful sprain or strain during a half-time break. Imagine being able to go into a Chrono-Force modified room, and getting a full 8 hours’ sleep in 10 minutes.

On the science front, an array of Chrono-Force generators placed precisely in space could create a Chrono-Force lens with an aperture for astronomical observations that measures meters or kilo-meters in diameter. The possibility of using the “Chrono-Force” to accelerate decomposition of our most hazardous nuclear waste, (there-by reducing the half-life), is very promising. We may even find a way to use the effects of “Chrono-Force” to alter the bonds at the sub-atomic level to assist in modulating nuclear fusion, and providing an almost unlimited source of controlled energy. This may allow us to put a fusion reactor on spacecraft to allow interstellar travel by collecting interstellar hydrogen as a fuel for the reactor while in transit.

Commercial applications may also enable technology to extend “Moore’s Law” of doubling computer power every two years by enclosing the CPU in a “time accelerated” module to increase the apparent speed of the computer. Environmentally friendly fuels may be produced faster through accelerated growth of bacteria in ethanol (alcohol) production. We may be able to increase the effect of time to speed up the growth of anti-toxins from beneficial molds, viruses, or other agents to help with disease, or pollution mitigation. Items as mundane as a “time slowed breadbox” may prevent your morning bagel from going stale. That development is, however, still some Time in the future.

Man has long pondered whether one could build a “time machine” to go backward or forward in this “time-line”. We know that the previously defined “fundamental forces of the universe” (gravity, EMF, and Strong Nuclear Force) are linear in nature. That is to say they always flow in a predictable direction (inward for gravity and the strong nuclear force, outward for EMF). The flow of thermal energy is from the hotter to the cooler object. The nature of the Chrono-Force is to radiate outward. Gravity varies in magnitude, but it always draws inward. “Chrono-Force” can vary in magnitude, but (like the EMF) always radiates outward. This is why the “theory of causality,” and common sense, agree that (contrary to long held beliefs in Hollywood) the paradox of going back in time and murdering your parents prior to your birth, would be impossible. In fact, if we accept the “Chrono-Force” theory, we could consider anything prior to the “Big Bang”, or point of “Chrono-Force” origin, to be the mother of all “Divide-by-Zero” errors. To project backward beyond that point in time would present a totally irrational, chaotic universe (just as the Bible reports). Consider such an environment with no reference of time, or even sequential order, for that matter.

Using the “Chrono-Force” concept, the Theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Physics could both peacefully coexist. The “Big Bang” theory can have the “Cosmological Inflation” and the “Horizon Problem” (the conflict of size, age and temperature of the universe) is easily explained in understandable layman’s terms. The Biblical explanation of the creation of the universe will also fit with the theory of evolution, if one considers Chrono-Force to be variable. According to the Biblical Genesis account, the Sun, the Moon, and the stars were not created until the fourth day. How would God have measured time for the first three days? The astronomical levels of energy, (electromagnetic, gravitational, and strong nuclear forces), expended to create matter from energy would have also altered the interaction effects on the Chrono-Force (as our puny brains perceive it).

Early scientists, due to their ignorance of gravity and its effects, conjured up complicated models of the solar system using crystalline spheres, epicycles, and other exotic theories to explain the apparent motion of the Sun, the Moon, the planets, and stars, with the Earth as the center. Today theoretical physicists, (ignorant of the effects of Chrono-Force), have presented models of Symmetry, Super-symmetry, String Theory, and “M” theory. Each one of these theories seems more complicated than the previous. These theories fly in the face of the concept that, most of the time, the simplest explanation is usually the most likely to be correct. Theoretical physicists have come up with paradoxes and “theoretical loopholes” in the laws of physics as if lawyers or politicians wrote those laws. Nature or God doesn’t excuse or exclude with “loopholes” in the fabric of the universe. These “loopholes” are evidence of our lack of understanding of how the universe truly works. Future physicists will look back at the 20th Century theories regarding time travel as similar to the alchemists of the dark ages attempting to conjure gold from base metals. These time travel efforts will seem equally naive and/or misguided to future generations of scientists.

As we go forward, the Chrono-Force hypothesis will be refined into a Chrono-Force Theory, and help explain the “Theory of Everything”. When Professor Einstein developed his famous E=MC² equation, time was considered to be a constant factor. If we re-examine the “speed of light” portion of Einstein’s equation (the speed of light is distance “D” divided by time “T”), we can replace C² with (D/T)². Since the variability of Chrono-Force (time) is now recognized, we will find that the nature of the universe is more accurately expressed by the equation: